Major Food Borne Illnesses

The chart below lists the major food borne illesses:
 
DISEASE PATHOGEN INCUBATION
PERIOD/
MEAN
DURATION
OF
ILLNESS
SYMPTOMS FOODS
IMPLICATED
TYPE
OF
ILLNESS
RESERVOIR
Salmonellosis Salmonella
(facultative)
BACTERIA
8-72 hours

18-36 hours

2-3 days Abdominal pain, headache, fever, nausea, diarrhea, chills, cramps Poultry, eggs, meat, meat products, milk, smoked fish, protein foods, juice Infection Domestic and wild animals, humans
Shigellosis Shigella
(facultative)
BACTERIA
1-7 days

1-3 days

Indefinite Diarrhea, fever, chills, cramps, lassitude, nausea, dehydration Moist, mixed foods, milk, potato, tuna, bean, and macaroni salads, apple cider Infection Human feces, flies
Listeriosis Listeria
monocytogenes
BACTERIA
2 days - 3 weeks

4-21 days

Indefinite; high fatality in the immuno-compromised Nausea, vomiting, chills, headache, fever, backache, meningitis Unpasteurized dairy foods, vegetables, meat, poultry, seafood, raw and smoked fish, ready-to-eat foods Infection Domestic and wild animals, humans, soil
Staphylococcus Staphylococcus
aureus
BACTERIA
1-6 hours

2-4 hours

1-2 days Nausea, cramps, vomiting, dehydration Reheated foods, ham, poultry, dairy foods, custards, potato salad, cream-filled foods Intoxication Humans (skin, throat, nose), animals
Clostridium
perfringens
Clostridium
perfringens
BACTERIA
8-22 hours

10 hours

24 hours Abdominal pain, diarrhea, gas Meat, meat products, gravy, thick foods that are held at a low temp or cooled slowly Infection/
Intoxication
Human intestinal tract, animals, soil
Bacillus
cereus
Bacillus
cereus
BACTERIA
½ - 5 hours; 8-16 hours

½ -5 hrs; 12 hrs

6-24 hours; 12 hours Nausea and vomiting; Diarrhea, abdominal cramps Rice, custards, seasonings, dry food mixes, spices, salads, casseroles, milk, sauces, meats Intoxication Soil, dust
Campylobacter Campylobacter jejuni
BACTERIA
2-5 days 5-7 days

3-5 days

Diarrhea which may be watery or bloody, fever, nausea, headache Chicken, unpasteurized milk, water Infection Domestic and wild animals (intestinal tract)
E. coli 0157:H7 Escherichia coli
BACTERIA
2-5 days 5-10 days

2-5 days

Diarrhea (may be bloody), abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, HUS Undercooked ground beef, imported cheeses, unpasteurized milk or juice, cider, alfalfa sprouts Infection/
Intoxication
Human intestinal tract, animals (especially cattle)
Botulism Clostridium
botulinum
BACTERIA
12-36 hours; 72 or more hours Several days - year

18-36 hours

Vertigo, inability to swallow, respiratory paralysis, visual disturbances Improperly processed low-acid canned goods, garlic in oil, grilled onions, meat, stew, baked potatoes Intoxication Soil, water
Viral
Gastroenteritis
Norwalk,
Snow
Mountain,
calicivirus
VIRUS
24-48 hours 24-60 hours

36 hours

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache Water, ready-to-eat foods (salad, sandwiches, bread) shellfish N/A Human intestinal tract
Hepatitis A Hepatitis A
VIRUS
7-50 days Several weeks to months

25-30 days

Fever, fatigue, stomach pain, nausea, dark urine, jaundice Ready-to-eat foods, fruit and juice, milk products, shellfish, salads, vegetables, sandwiches, water

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